The group -- including 23 children -- were found in Turkey's southern Kilis province while illegally crossing the border from Syria, according to the security forces, according to Anadolu Agency.
An investigation has been launched; the 20 adults are suspected of having Daesh links.
At least one suicide vest and eight hand grenades were also seized by the Turkish authorities.
Also on Wednesday, a court in Kilis province remanded a Daesh suspect who was arrested earlier while carrying two hand grenades, over a kilogram of explosives and a suicide belt.
Russian national Dzhamaleil Gagiev, 29, was arrested two weeks ago in Kilis while attempting to cross into Turkey from Syria.
In his statement to Kilis's provincial gendarmerie command, Gagiev claimed he had joined the Daesh terrorist organization two years ago and had been assigned tasks in Syria's Manbij following a few weeks of military and religious training.
He left Daesh due to what he said was the group’s lack of concern about his condition after he was wounded in a fight against the PYD, he said.
The court ruled that Gagiev was being remanded to face trial for "being a member of a terrorist organization".